Computer controlled deformable mirrors can correct, in real-time, the distortion caused by the turbulence of the Earth’s atmosphere, making the images obtained almost as sharp as those taken in space.
EUV / VUV detectors are used for calculating the fractional abundance of ions for hot plasmas with different electron temperatures and electron densities.
Quantum dots (QDs) are tiny semiconductor particles a few nanometres in size that have optical and electronic properties that differ from larger particles due to the quantum behaviour at nanoscales.
A scanning electron microscope (SEM) produces images of a sample by scanning the surface with a focused beam of electrons.
The TEM is used heavily in both material science / metallurgy and the biological sciences. In both cases, the specimens must be very thin and able to withstand the high vacuum present inside the instrument.